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INTRO: Use of automatic wheel monitoring on DSB’s S-bane network in København has reduced wheelset damage through the prompt detection of surface defects. Rolling stock maintenance costs have fallen, as well as the levels of noise and vibration generated by train operationsBYLINE: Ulrik Danneskiold-Samsøe and Ove Ramkow-PedersenØDS-Caltronic A/SIN JANUARY 2000, Danish State Railways put into service a new wheel defect detector at Østerport on the København S-bane network. DSB has been continuously monitoring wheel defects on its S-bane EMU fleet since 1986, and the new detector incorporates a number of improvements based on experience with earlier systems. The location on the principal cross-city route close to København’s main station ensures that the equipment will monitor the majority of units, as most services are funnelled through this area with 2min headways at peak hours. Before the introduction of automatic monitoring the S-bane fleet suffered heavily from wheel flats. At that time the underfloor wheel lathe at the S-bane depot was working three shifts a day. Its replacement now works less than one shift a day, significantly reducing maintenance costs.Causes of wheelflatsClimatic conditions in København unfortunately stimulate the creation of flats. The humid environment and rich vegetation cause a reduction in the adhesion coefficient, which in turn increases the likelihood of wheelslip particularly during the leaf fall season. Slipping causes spot heating of the contact area on the wheel, and when it has ceased the perlitic alloy is quenched and converted to more brittle martensite. Surface deformation also takes place, and cracks are formed in the contact area between the small layer of martensite and the surrounding perlitic steel.As the wheel moves, the martensite layer delivers a strong impact to the rail causing a rounding of the geometry and crack growth. This impact will therefore be at its largest just after the flat has been created, with the peak impact value eventually starting to fall to a certain level after the rounding process has stabilised. When the cracks have grown sufficiently large, small pieces of the contact surface may begin to work loose, and the overall impact level may start to increase again. The wheel monitoring system detects this trend or defect pattern by analysing the energy impact level to determine how recently the defect was caused.One means of tackling this problem at its source is to implement measures that will prevent train wheels from slipping. In order to maintain adhesion on the S-bane network during the leaf fall season, the railhead is cleaned outside traffic hours using a high pressure flush of water mixed with lime. This technique has been in use for at least four years, and has caused a significant reduction in the number of wheelflats. Other measures include ensuring that brake blocks are released from the wheels after parking in very cold weather, and avoiding emergency brake applications as much as possible through the use of better signalling systems.Fitting modern wheelslide prevention systems to rolling stock forms another possible solution. But despite investment in preventive measures, flats are often still generated. Once wheelflats do appear, however, wheel monitoring systems have proven to be successful in limiting their impact.The physical impact generated by a wheelflat on the railhead is proportional to the speed of the train. In order to obtain comparable data, it is therefore necessary to install the wheelflat detector in a section of track where trains operate at a fairly constant speed. Tests performed at the Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, USA, and experience in general have show that a passing speed in the range of 60 to 80 km/h is a practical choice, but reliable measurements can also be obtained above and below these speeds.Efficient detectionFlats usually form on the wheel tread, and this is most pronounced on railways with mainly tangent track and precise wheel/rail profiles. Curved track will increase the likelihood of flats occurring close to the flange or the wheel edge, and worn profiles will increase the likelihood of hunting. Detection accuracy declines as the degree of hunting or the percentage of flats forming outside the wheel tread increases.The detection system can be configured so as to allow the bogie to move at least one half-wavelength of the hunting movement for a normal two-axle bogie while passing the detector. This increases the chance of getting at least one ’direct hit’ of the flat as the train passes the detector site. In specifying the new detector for Østerport, this feature was highlighted by DSB. The length of the measuring section was increased to cover at least four full wheel rotations, whereas the old detector was only long enough to cover one wheel rotation.Another important requirement was the need to detect wheelflats at an early stage, while the rounding effect is still at its peak. The new equipment has therefore been installed on the busiest section of the S-bane network, where most trains pass and new flats can be detected at the earliest possible stage.A feature retained from the old system has been smooth data distribution through a local area network to all departments that may find the detection results useful. Wheel data is currently received by DSB’s maintenance planning and engineering functions, and may in future be transmitted to the S-bane wheel shop, maintenance department and infrastructure owner Banestyrelsen.Benefits to dateDSB’s main reason for installing a monitoring system has been to reduce wheel maintenance costs, which for its second and third-generation S-bane EMUs is principally a matter of achieving the best whole-life cost. The fourth generation – the innovative wide-bodied articulated sets built by Alstom-LHB (RG 1.96 p19) – impose a further demand. Wheel diameters must be maintained within very close tolerances on each half-set of these trains, which each have four out of five single-axle bogies powered by inverter-fed AC traction motors. A single wheelset can only be reprofiled within very narrow tolerances if reprofiling of the other four is to be avoided, which increases the importance of detecting surface defects at an early stage. The wheelflat detection system is therefore of vital importance to the economic operation of these latest EMUs, even though they are equipped with a better wheelslide prevention system than their predecessors.The wheelflat detection system also allows better maintenance planning and can therefore improve fleet availability. Fitted with AVI tags, EMUs can be called in for scheduled maintenance rather than being sent for attention when a defect is discovered, which can lead to a sudden influx of vehicles requiring attention. Manual tread inspection has been superseded by the continuously-operating system, reducing costs and helping to prevent damage to bogie-mounted components.Due to København’s coastal climate where the differences between night and daytime and summer and winter temperatures are not great, wheel tread defects rarely cause track damage on the S-bane network. In other countries, however, wheel defects have been known to cause cracking of rail and sleepers and even rail breaks.Levels of noise and vibration inside the cars and at the lineside have been reduced, and wheel defect monitoring can thus form part of strategies to reduce the environmental impact of railway operations. Reducing levels of wheel/rail noise through wheel monitoring has enabled DSB to do without costly lineside noise barriers, but precise figures for these notional savings are not available.Protecting assetsThe ongoing trend to divide national railways into separate companies responsible for infrastructure and operations has seen those bodies responsible for the permanent way develop an increased awareness of the damage caused to track, signalling and other lineside equipment by defective wheels. In some countries, infrastructure authorities are considering the installation of wheel condition monitoring systems, in order to monitor standards of rolling stock maintenance by operators who might be incentivised by a system of penalties and rewards.The obvious interest to train operators of reducing maintenance costs has already been mentioned, but some are also concerned about the environmental impact of defective wheel treads, particularly the noise levels generated by freight and high speed trains. On these environmental grounds, many countries enforce severe restrictions on ’noisy’ operations such as freight, and continuous wheel condition monitoring helps operators to stay within the limits prescribed by local regulations.Operators, infrastructure authorities and environmental protection agencies therefore have an obvious common interest in investing in wheel condition monitoring technology. It would be to their advantage to share the costs and mutual benefits of detecting and promptly rectifying wheel defects before they become a problem.CAPTION: DSB’s wheelflat detector at Østerport on the cross-city S-bane corridor has been made long enough to monitor four complete rotations of each wheel CAPTION: Surface deformations and martensite are formed on the tread by spot heating of the contact area as a result of wheelslip CAPTION: The three-phase drives and steerable single-axle bogies used on the latest generation of S-bane EMUs require wheel diameters to be maintained to very close tolerancesØDS-Caltronic A/S, DenmarkReader Enquiry Number 128
GET THE BEST OF THE JAPAN TIMES Having become the first woman to win five titles at the national championships at the tender age of 16, Rikako Ikee has her sights set on more hardware and another 16-year-old at the world championships in Budapest in July.Ikee, who competed in seven events at last summer’s Rio Olympics, won all her races at the nationals in Nagoya last month, triumphing in the 50-, 100- and 200-meter freestyle as well as the 50 and 100 butterfly. KEYWORDS That feat, unsurprisingly, has many dubbing her as Japan’s biggest hope for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, but the youngster is not getting carried away.“I think there has never been a tournament where I could win so many events. I have a sense of fulfillment,” she told Kyodo News in a recent interview. “(But) it hasn’t sunk in that I’m being called an ace. I’m not at that sort of level yet at all.”Ikee said she has two clear targets ahead of her trip to Hungary, where she will again compete in five individual races and could also take part in as many as five relays.“I want to win a medal . . . (and beat Canada’s) Penny Oleksiak. We’re the same age and I was winning when we met at the world junior championships two years ago,” Ikee said of the Rio Olympic 100 free gold medalist and 100 fly runner-up.Ikee failed to reach the final for the former and finished fifth in the latter in Brazil, but a trip to Europe provides an opportunity to get one over on Oleksiak in the budding rivalry.“It’s frustrating to see the gap grow bigger so I’ll try to narrow it instead this time,” said Ikee, before she revealed the one distance in which she’s determined to be No. 1.“I am very persistent in my sprinting, the 50 freestyle is the event I enjoy the most,” she said. “I definitely don’t want to give it to anyone. There’s no room to look around, it finishes in a flash and is the one in which I have to concentrate the most.“It’s the one in which I can most be in a world of my own.”Despite all her success, Ikee is looking forward to the adjustments that could bring more success three years down the road, when the Olympics come to her hometown.“My times will improve considerably while I swim comfortably if I can up my pace and increase my thrust too — even if my stroke tempo remains the same,” she said. “I believe my time won’t improve unless I alter my technique, so hopefully I can make that change in a positive manner.”“Getting a medal (in 2020) is a goal but more than anything else, I want to go into it with confidence. I want to have the kind of training on a daily basis that (gives me the belief that) I can definitely win.” RELATED PHOTOS 2020 Tokyo Olympics, 2016 Rio Olympics, Rikako Ikee, freestyle swimming Rikako Ikee won all five of the events she swam at the national championships in April. | KYODO IN FIVE EASY PIECES WITH TAKE 5
ENGLAND cricketer Ben Stokes was “spiteful and angry” towards a bouncer before he was involved in a fight with two men, a court has heard.The Durham all-rounder is one of three men accused of fighting in Bristol on September 25.Bristol Crown Court previously heard Ryan Ali, 28, and Ryan Hale, 27, were knocked unconscious by 27-year-old Mr Stokes.They also deny affray and are on trial alongside the cricketer.Giving evidence, bouncer Andrew Cunningham said Mr Stokes became abusive after he was refused entry back into Mbargo nightclub just after 02:00hrs BST. TEETH AND TATTOOSMr Stokes and his team-mate Alex Hales had left the nightclub at 00:46hrs but returned at 02:08hrs.Mr Cunningham said he explained to them the club was closed and they would not be allowed to enter.He told the jury Mr Stokes offered him £300 to be let in, but after he refused the all-rounder became “spiteful and angry” and insulted Mr Cunningham’s gold teeth and tattoos.Det Con Daniel Adams said CCTV footage played in court showed Mr Stokes flicking a V-sign at Mr Cunningham.However, the cricketer’s barrister Gordon Cole QC said it was not accepted that Mr Stokes had made the gesture.The CCTV also shows two men, William O’Connor and Kai Barry, leaving the club in the Clifton Triangle area of the city and the pair engaging in conversation with Mr Stokes and Mr Hales.Prosecutors say Mr Stokes mocked the two “openly gay” men outside the venue. However, Mr Cole said Mr Barry and Mr O’Connor, who had both been inside the club, had been “taking the mickey” out of his client’s shoes. ‘CAMP HAND GESTURES’Referring to the CCTV, Det Con Adams told jurors Mr Stokes had “mimicked the actions” of Mr O’Connor and then “flicked something which we believe was a cigarette butt” at him.Mr Cunningham described Mr Barry and Mr O’Connor as “effeminate” and “flamboyant” and told the court Mr Stokes had “made noises” and “camp hand gestures” to mock them.He said he told Mr Stokes: “If you are going to start on someone, start on me.”Mr Cunningham continued: “When I said this (Mr Hales) looked a bit confused.“I explained to him what he had done. He turned to his friend and said ‘Stokesy don’t do that’.”He said that before leaving the club area Mr Stokes shook hands with his door supervisor colleague but he refused to do so.“He went to shake mine and I had no reason to shake his hand,” he said. “They left and walked up the road.”Mr Cunningham denied he had been aggressive towards Mr Stokes and Mr Hales when they returned to the club.During cross-examination, Mr Cole said: “You were rude in the way you spoke to them. They then stood outside for quite some time laughing and joking. “They were laughing and joking with Mr O’Connor and Mr Barry.”Mr Cunningham replied: “Definitely not. I never became aggressive. They were laughing and joking at them, not with them.”The prosecutor suggested there was an exchange of “mickey taking” and “banter” between Mr Stokes and Mr Hales and the two gay men. Mr Cunningham replied: “That’s not how I would call it.”Stephen Mooney, representing Mr Ali, asked Mr Cunningham whether Mr Stokes and Mr Hales had treated him with “respect and courtesy”. “No,” the doorman replied.The court has heard Mr Stokes knocked out both Mr Hale and Mr Ali when he and Mr Hales caught up with them, and Mr O’Connor and Mr Barry, on a nearby street.Mr Ali is said to have threatened Mr Hales with a bottle, while Mr Hale is alleged to have pulled a metal pole from a street sign and brought it to the scene.Mr Stokes claims he was acting in self-defence and took action after his co-defendants were homophobic towards Mr O’Connor and Mr Barry.‘FORCEFUL PUNCH’The jury was shown video footage recorded by film student Max Wilson, who said he began filming after he heard a commotion and “thought there was a fight about to break out”.“Someone shoved another person,” he said. The six men sounded like “football hooligans” and were “clearly drunk”, he added.In the footage Mr Wilson was heard to swear after a punch was thrown.Asked why he reacted in that way, he replied: “It was such a forceful punch. It just took me by surprise.“I felt a little bit sorry about the lad that had been punched and it looked like he had his hands up.”Mr Stokes, of Castle Eden, Durham, was arrested in the early hours along with Mr Ali, of Bristol, and Mr Hale, of Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol.The fight took place several hours after England had played a one-day international against West Indies at the city’s County Ground.The trial continues. (BBC Sport)
In late March, it was revealed by Le Parisien that Liverpool were taking a look at Silas Wamangituka, currently playing in Ligue 2 with Paris FC. The young forward’s performances have attracted a lot of interest this season, with the top five in Ligue 1 travelling to see him alongside other big sides such as Barcelona and Chelsea.In fact, the Blues are the latest to add themselves to the long list of clubs keeping an eye on the situation, as it’s widely expected Wamangituka will be leaving come the end of the current campaign.In fact, speaking to Téléfoot, the 19-year-old admitted the interest from clubs such as Liverpool and Chelsea is very welcome.Embed from Getty ImagesHe said: “It really is a great pleasure for me. These are clubs I was watching when I was younger. Playing in big clubs, that’s essential for me.”Aiming to end the season on 10 goals before leaving Paris FC, the youngster is two away from his aim, scoring eight in 24 appearances so far, as well as picking up an assist in a 3-0 win over Clermont Foot.With a price expected to be over €5m, it will be interesting to see who comes knocking for what could very well end up being a gamble.Our bet is he’ll end up somewhere in Ligue 1, as we can’t see either Liverpool or Chelsea giving him the game time he’ll need next season.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameUndoRaid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadEven Non-Gamers Are Obsessed With This RPG Game (It’s Worth Installing!)Raid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadUndoDating.comWhere do attractive singles find each other in Tung Chung?Dating.comUndoKeto减肥1個簡單的妙招一夜「融化」腹部贅肉（今晚試試）Keto减肥Undo熱門話題小心會長過頭…網友推爆:「真的長得超誇張!」熱門話題UndoSingles50Hong Kong: A 40+ Dating Site That Actually Works!Singles50UndoCoworking Space | Search AdsThe cost of shared office in Hong Kong might surprise youCoworking Space | Search AdsUndoPerfect-Dating.comThousands of successful men are looking for women in Tung ChungPerfect-Dating.comUndoInstant Voice TranslatorGenius Japanese Invention Allows You To Instantly Speak 43 LanguagesInstant Voice TranslatorUndo